After more than forty years of cooperation between the European Union and the ACP countries, the relationships between the two entities are still strongly influenced by their origin. The Lomé Conventions keep intact the post- colonialism remains whose main characteristic is the fact that ACP countries are the weak part of this couple. The Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) are aiming to correct this anomaly by removing some tariff barriers in relations between the two entities. If the request for equity, in the light of the specific development of ACP countries, became very strong for the establishment of fairer trade relations, it remains that the existence of the African family farming is threatened by a business model too inspired by liberalism.
The intensity of the debate on the EPA, however, enabled African farmers’ organizations to strengthen their capacity to influence the content of the negotiations in a favorable development of family farming sense, to regulate markets and promote a more equitable trade. The opportunity was given to African farmers’ organizations to develop their capacity for proposals in relation to issues related to the implementation of regional agricultural policies based on food sovereignty and poverty reduction.
Through a series of documents you will find here some of the views that PAFO and its members provide. This production and co-production on the thematic of the EPA will be progressively completed:
PAFO products and its members
EPA: West African farmers’ Policy Contributions
In this Inter-réseaux newsletter, farmers’ organisations recognize that contrary to the EPA logic, many industrial countries developed through interventionist agricultural policy.
ROPPA: Agricultural Policy Instruments for Regional Integration
Chapter 8 notes that both the WTO and EPA negotiations push West African agriculture, based on smallholder family farming, to be fully subject to the forces of market liberalization.
1 Global Day of Action on EPAs : The CPF has also said no to EPAs in their current form
2 Food security: farmers say no to agreements with Europe
Farmers’ organizations and EPA: “Not the cart before the horse”
3 Risks and threats of signing an EPA with the EU on regional integration of ECOWAS countries and the objectives of regional agricultural policy process ECOWAP
4 ROPPA Memorandum, CPF and civil society organizations in Burkina regional on the integration and EPA negotiations
5 Mid-term review of the EPA negotiations between West Africa and the European Union pursuant to Article 37.4 of the Cotonou Agreement : ROPPA Contribution
6 ROPPA Proposal for the implementation and protection of agricultural policy (ECOWAP)
7 PROPAC is wondering how the EPA can benefit smallholders farming
8 PROPAC Participation to the mid -term partnership agreements with the European Union
Other authors have also addressed the topic of EPAs with some interesting challenges for African farmers’ organizations. We offer you this production that we invite you to enrich by your suggestions:
Products from other authors
SADC EU EPA Legal Text
This is the Economic Partnership Agreement between the EU and the SADC EPA states.
EU-ECOWAS-UEMOA EPA Legal Text
This is the Economic Partnership Agreement between the EU, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA).
EU EAC Legal Text
This is the legal text of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the EU and the states of the Eastern African Community.
EU Report: Private Sector Dynamics in FTA’s
This report presents lessons from the EU on accompanying measures and reforms necessary for regional integration. It gives the case of the National Working Group on Trade Policy set up in Malawi.
CAADP Review: Recommendations on EPAs
This review recommends that CAADP should be able to represent Africa’s small farmers on international trade issues such as the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and issues that arise at the World Trade Organization.
Action Framework: EU-ACP Cotton Partnership
This framework sets out the strategic focus for the improvement of exogenous determinants of competitiveness and recognizes the importance of efforts to develop regional markets, in line with the EPAs.
Food Price Volatility: Implications for ACP countries
November 30, 2011
Cédric Pène, Director of the Agriculture Division, WTO.
Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and international policy coordination
November 30, 2011
Hafez Ghanem, Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department, FAO.
Tackling volatility through improved markets and trade policies
November 30, 2011
Carmel Cahill, Senior Counsellor, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD.
9 Trade Agreements between Europe and Africa (EPA): instructions for use
10 Watch Bulletin Inter-Réseaux on Economic Partnership Agreements: Presentation, analysis, views
11 Panorama of impact assessments of EPAs EU –ACP
To go further on the EPA subject, we suggest other more general documents, with didactic, educational, analytical and general scope theme of the EPA :
General products on the thematic
Public Private Dialogue Technical Report on Botswana Beef
November 20, 2014
This report notes that the EPA represents a golden opportunity for increasing exports of Botswana beef to the EU market, provided that EPA conditions such as
implementation of a livestock Identification and Traceability System are met.
The Impact of EU policies on African Agriculture
According to this CSO Monitoring (2009-2010), the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) provide further incentives for land grabbling by curtailing States’ policy space to protect their resources and markets.
European Agri Cooperative Promote Unequal Globalisation
August 11, 2012
This article shows how European agricultural cooperatives sometimes take contradictory stances o freer agricultural trade and the impacts this has for trade with farmers form developing countries.
World Bank: Challenges for Africa Agriculture
January 10, 2011
This book identifies the EPAs as examples of measures designed to protect agriculture in developing countries, but notes that these should be accompanied by enhanced coordination at the international level.
Impact of EPAs on livelihoods in Southern Africa
This report looks into the effects of the EPAs in the countries in Southern Africa, focusing on sugar, grapes and cotton production and value chains.
Regional SPS Frameworks in Africa
This report gives an overview of all the regional sanitary and phyto-sanitary frameworks in Africa and notes that the strategies are influenced by the EPAs.
SADC Agricultural Trade Adjustments and EPAs
This ECDPM publication looks at the new policy issues and trade adjustment challenges to the SADC region in light of the EPA.
12 Opinion of the West African Farmers organizations
13 The causes of the food crisis
14 Africa and European Commission autism