Climate Change

Family farmings in the South, which represent nearly 80 % of farming in developing countries and more than a billion of assets, are at the centre of important issues related to climate change. Indeed, the strong dependence of most African population and agricultural and pastoral activities depending on rainfall justifies the urgency to implement programmes in order to reduce the vulnerability of poor populations, especially those living in rural areas.

Thanks to increasing appropriations for this new sector, many organizations and initiatives are emerging year after year, internationally and at regional and national levels in West and Central Africa but which will gain if better coordinated.

In this context, African farmers’ Organizations have an important role to play in the implementation of sustainable and efficient agriculture, capable to meet the challenge of food sovereignty and concerned about protecting the environment. This necessarily requires putting in place training and coaching systems, and consulting support to farmers as shown in the documents included in this theme.

Here you’ll find views, proposals and responses PAFO and its members bring to these questions. This production and co-production on the theme of climate change will be progressively completed :

PAFO products and its members

Press release: Farmers’ positions on climate at COP20                    

December 12,  2014

The speech of the President of the Pan-African Farmers’ Organisation (PAFO), Theo de Jager, at the United Nations Climate change Conference in Lima, Peru (COP21) highlighted the transformative power of agriculture and the necessary change of mind-set needed.

Source: ifoam.bio

http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/default/files/farmers_position_on_climate_talks_.pdf

1 Roppa in action on climate change subject

http://www.inter-reseaux.org/revue-grain-de-sel/49-agriculture-et-aleas/article/le-roppa-en-action-sur-le-theme

2 Regional Forum of Farmers Organizations of West Africa of the CAADP

http://www.roppa.info/spip.php?article135

3 Climate change: the President of the Pan-African platform of Farmers organizations , Elisabeth Atangana recalls the need to train farmers

http://extensionconference2011.cta.int/fr/node/508

4 Global Alliance against Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) : Building an alliance to assist CILSS/ECOWAS countries to implement priority adaptation and mitigation to climate change

http://www.agrhymet.ne/portailCC/images/pdf/depliant_GCCA.pdf

5 AOPP Liaison Bulletin

http://www.aopp-mali.org/IMG/pdf/bulletin_Fevrier_2011.pdf

Other authors have also addressed the topic of climate change by addressing interesting stakes to African Farmers’ organizations. We offer you this production that we invite you to enrich by your suggestions:

Products from other authors

ECDPM: Making African agriculture climate smart

November 2015

Despite the various approaches to climate-smart agriculture, there is a continued need to ensure they are complementary and mainstreamed in agricultural policies and interventions at the national, regional and international level.

Source: ecdpm.org

http://ecdpm.org/wp-content/uploads/BN80_CSA_Making_Agriculture_Africa_climate_Smart.pdf

Climate-smart agriculture in Africa

2014

This joint CGIAR and CTA publication shows some examples of climate-smart agricultural practices currently being used across the African continent.

Source: publications.cta.in

http://publications.cta.int/media/publications/downloads/1815_PDF_7ey3GWo.pdf?

AGRA: Climate Change and Smallholder Farmers

2014

This 2014 AGRA African Agriculture Status Report focuses on climate change and smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.

Source: agra-alliance.org

http://www.google.be/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjPqMfAoMXJAhUEPRQKHZTyDk0QFggyMAU&url=http%3A%2F%2Fagra-alliance.org%2Fdownload%2F54117815341ec%2F&usg=AFQjCNHi52Palpwg7Zqy1pVphyzOdU2sTw&sig2=t-I8-HpEBlDaZ1JmKUsvrg&bvm=bv.108538919,d.d2s

ReaderAgricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

This document presents research and in-depth background information on the topic of Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/cta-reader-30_agricultural-resilience-eng-rev-21.pdf

Introduction - Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

Staffan Nilsson, President of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). Watch the video.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/nilsson_final_en.pdf

Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

Achille Bassilekin III, Assistant Secretary-General for Sustainable Development, ACP Secretariat. Watch the video.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/bassilekin_final_en.pdf

Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

Rajul Pandya-Lorch, Head of 2020 Initiative IFPRI. Watch the video recording.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/pandya-lorch_final_en.pdf

Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

Denis Salord, Head of Unit, Regional Programmes Sub-Saharan Africa and ACP wide, European Commission. Watch the video.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings-videos.net/agricultural-resilience-in-the-face-of-crisis-and-shocks/59_denis-salord.html

Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

Michael Hailu, Director of CTA. Watch the video recording and video Interview.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/director-remarks-final.pdf

Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks

March 04, 2013

Dr. Akinwumi Adesina, Honourable Minister of Agriculture, Nigeria: Conducive policies in support of resilience. Watch video recording and video Interview.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/honorable-akinwumi-adesina.pdf

Enhancing resilience in the Horn of Africa

March 04, 2013

Jean-François Maystadt, Researcher, IFPRI. Watch the video.

Source: slideshare.net

http://www.slideshare.net/brusselsbriefings/5-maystadt-ctajfm-presentation

Resilience-building in the Sahel: Regreening the Sahel

March 04, 2013

Chris Reij, SLM specialist, Senior Fellow, World Resources Institute. Watch the video.

Source: slideshare.net

http://www.slideshare.net/brusselsbriefings/6-reij-brussels-cta-presentation-march-4

Drought-resilient crops and resilience systems of benefit to small-scale farmers

March 04, 2013

Girma Tesfahun Kassie, Researcher Socioeconomics Programme, CIMMYT, Zimbabwe.Watch the video.

Source: slideshare.net

http://www.slideshare.net/brusselsbriefings/7-kassie-dt-maize-and-agr-risk-coping-in-ssa-kassie-et-al-brussels-2013

Reader – Climate change, agriculture and food security: proven approaches and new investments

September 27, 2012

This document presents research and in-depth background information on the topic of climate change, agriculture and food security.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/reader-br-29-climate-change-agriculture-and-food-security-_-eng.pdf 

Policy Brief: Promoting climate-smart agriculture in ACP countries

December 09, 2012

This document outlines policy and case studies on climate-smart agriculture in ACP countries.

Source: cta.int

http://www.cta.int/images/docman-files/policy_papers/9_Promoting%20climate_smart%20agriculture%20in%20ACP%20countries.pdf

Smallholder agriculture under climate change: challenges and outlook

September 27, 2012

Sonja Vermeulen, Head of Research, CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/br29-vermeulen1.pptx

The status of agriculture in negotiations on climate change: update and outlook

September 27, 2012

Anette Friis, Manager, Climate Change Policy, Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Member of World Farmer’s Organisation.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/friis_presentation.ppt

Planning for climate-smart landscapes

September 27, 2012

Tony Simons, Director General of the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). Here is a summary.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/simons-presentation.ppt

View from ACP farmers: successes to date and needs for the future

September 27, 2012

Ishmael Sunga, CEO, The Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU).

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/sunga_presentation.pptx

Scaling-up the implementation of climate-smart agriculture: innovations and successes

September 27, 2012

Arslan, Aslihan, Natural Resource Economist , the Agricultural Development Division FAO.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/aslan_presentation.pptx

Small sized holdings and low value crops: the case of index-based insurance

September 27, 2012

Kolli N. Rao, Chief Risk Officer, Agricultural Insurance Company of India.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/rao_-presentation.ppt

How farmers are linking food security, adaptation and mitigation in East Africa

September 27, 2012

Moses Tenywa, Director of Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Uganda. Here is the summary.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/tenywa_-presentation.pptx

Adaptation and mitigation to Climate change and coping mechanisms from pastoralists

February 22, 2012

Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim, Coordinator of Bororo nomadic peoples association, Chad. Here is the executive summary and video.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/3-oumaou-ibrahim_en.ppt

Pastoral field schools and proximity learning in a climate change perspective

February 22, 2012

Joep Van Mierlo, Director, Vétérinaires sans Frontières, Belgium. Here is the executive summary and video.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/joep-van-mierlo_en.ppt

Options for enhancing resilience in pastoral systems

February 22, 2012

Shirley Tarawali, Director of Institutional Planning, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). Here is the executive summary.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/1-shirley-tarawali_en.ppt

Biodiverse agriculture for a changing climate

March 10, 2010

Dr Jonathan Ensor, Practical Action, United Kingdom . Here is the executive summary.

Source: brusselsbriefings.com

http://brusselsbriefings.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/ensor_fr.ppt

6 Agriculture and climate hazards: Land policy

http://www.inter-reseaux.org/revue-grain-de-sel/49-agriculture-et-aleas/

7 Leaders of farmers’ organizations united to meet the climate change challenges

http://www.ifad.org/media/press/2012/9_f.htm

8 Smallholder farming: In the heart of the fight against climate change

http://www.avsf.org/public/posts/1290/texte_reference_changement_climatique_ap_avsf_mars2013.pdf

9 Smallholders farming and mitigation of climate change: some elements of understanding

http://www.avsf.org/public/posts/1262/agricultures-paysannes-et-attenuation-au-changement-climatique-quelques-elements-de-comprehension.pdf

10 Framework for Rural Hub Action

http://www.hubrural.org/IMG/pdf/cadre_d_intervention_cc_sa_vf.pdf

To go further on the theme of climate change, we suggest other more general documents, with didactic scope, educational, analytical and general scoop on the subject of climate change:

General products of the thematic

EU GM crops implications for third countries

2015

This paper looks into the socio-economic implications that result form accepting or rejecting the cultivation of GM crops and the hesitation by some African leaders to allow GM crops for fear of losing access to the EU market.

Source: icpublicpolicy.org

http://www.icpublicpolicy.org/conference/file/reponse/1435319024.pdf

Climate Change Adaption research in East Africa

August 2014

This research demonstrates that the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector in East Africa differs depending on the agro-ecological zone. While smallholder farmers have observed the impacts of climate change, they remain politically and economically marginalised.

Source: as areca.org

http://asareca.org/~asareca/sites/default/files/publications/FAC_Working_Paper_Agr-103.pdf

Economic impacts of climate change in Africa

May 10, 2013

This analysis outlines two scenarios for adapting to climate change in Africa: (i) double the irrigated area in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by 2050, and (ii) increasing rainfed and irrigated crop yields by 25% for all SSA countries.

Source: parcc-web.org

http://www.parcc-web.org/parcc-project/documents/2013/06/calzadilla-a-et-al-2013-economywide-impacts-of-climate-change-on-agriculture-in-sub-saharan-africa.pdf

Food security and adaption to climate change in East Africa

April 2013

This policy briefing identifies four possible scenarios of how different political and socio-economic options may impact food security and environmental change, as well as the region’s vulnerability to climate change.

Source: r4d.dfid.gov.uk

http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/pdf/outputs/CCAFS/ECIInsightsforPolicy1.pdf

Food Security in a Climate Perspective

January 2013

This Strategy is an intra-Ministerial response by the Norwegian government to developing countries’ demands for greater support for climate change adaption, to promote increased food production in a changing climate.

Source: regjeringen.no

https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/ud/vedlegg/utvikling/matsikkerhet/food_security_climate_perspective_strategy_summary.pdf

Climate Change Issues in Eastern and Southern Africa

2013

This chapter addresses the socioeconomic challenges of climate change in Eastern and Southern Africa, taking into account the particular reliance on climate-sensitive natural resources.

Source: paulroos.co.za

http://www.paulroos.co.za/wp-content/blogs.dir/12/files/2014/02/Cape-to-Cairo-4_Ch8-Viljoen.pdf

UNECA: Climate Change and Rural Economy

February 2012

This UNECA publication outlines the issues, challenges and opportunities related to climate change and the rural economy in Southern Africa.

Source: uneca.org

http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/climate-change-and-the-rural-economy-in-southern-africa.pdf

African Agriculture: Spotlight on Climate

November 2011

This Mo Ibrahim Foundation publication features a spotlight on climate change and identifies key measures to reverse the impacts: adaptation, mitigation, technologies and financing.

Source: moibrahimfoundation.org

http://static.moibrahimfoundation.org/downloads/publications/2011/2011-facts-&-figures-african-agriculture-from-meeting-needs-to-creating-wealth.pdf

Climate-smart agriculture for food security

November 2011

This newsletter identifies the current state of play of climate-smart agriculture and notes that the potential for such innovations to significantly increase climate resilience of food production systems is largely not realised.

Source: careclimatechange.org

http://careclimatechange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/JotoAfrika10.pdf

COMESA-EAC-SADC Climate change adaption and mitigation

November 2011

This document presents the programme for climate change and mitigation in the Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA-EAC-SADC) region.

Source: gcca.eu

http://www.gcca.eu/sites/default/files/ACP/description_of_the_action_comesa_revised_annex1_feb2012.pdf

Climate Change in Africa: new concerns, old arguments?

September 2011

This paper maps the current policy debates on climate change and agriculture in Africa and identifies the four main narratives: the Growth Narrative; the End of Poverty Narrative; Suitable Land Management Narrative and the New African Green Revolution Narrative.

Source: future-agricultures.org

http://www.future-agricultures.org/publications/research-and-analysis/occasional-papers/1463-climate-change-and-agriculture-in-sub-saharan-africa-new-concerns-old-arguments/file

Adapting African Agriculture to Climate Change

January 2011

This publication highlights the disparity between the international pledges for mitigating the negative impacts of climate change and notes that it hampers the implementation of adaptation measures.

Source: rural21.com

http://www.rural21.com/fileadmin/_migrated/content_uploads/Adapting_African_agriculture_04.pdf

COMESA Strategy: Mainstreaming Gender and Climate

2011

This document presents the Strategic Framework for mainstreaming Gender into Agriculture and Climate Change from 2011 to 2015. It aligns the COMESA Agricultural Framework, the COMESA-EAC-SADC Climate Change Programme and the Vision of COMESA.

Source: comesa.int

http://programmes.comesa.int/attachments/article/82/Regional%20Strategy%20on%20Mainstreaming%20Gender%20in%20Agriculture%20and%20Climate%20Change_RESTRAP.pdf

Climate Change Research Strategies in West and Central Africa

2011

West and Central Africa is seriously threatened by climate change due to the heavy dependence on rain fed agriculture. Appropriate technologies and best practices need to be developed and use in order to mitigate such threats.

Source: coraf.org

http://coraf.org/documents/Climate_Change_Strategy.pdf

Priorities for Climate Change Adaption and Mitigation

This presentation highlights the importance of promoting policy coherence with climate change, agriculture and trade. It also underlines that climate change policy must also take into account agriculture, forestry and other land uses.

Source: agritrade.org

http://www.agritrade.org/events/documents/Sibanda.pdf

Climate learning for African Agriculture

This report is the outcome of an e-discussion aiming to address climate change as an important and urgent problem and the shortage of experience of research and advisory services for African agriculture.

Source: nri.org

http://www.nri.org/images/Programmes/climate_change/publications/WorkingPaper4Ediscussion.pd

UNEP: Climate Change in Africa

This UNEP Fact Sheet explains that no continent will feel the impacts of climate change as much as Africa. It summarises the projected impacts of climate change, including the cost of adaption in GDP.

Source: unep.org

http://www.unep.org/roa/amcen/docs/AMCEN_Events/climate-change/2ndExtra_15Dec/FACT_SHEET_CC_Africa.pdf

IFOAM: Organic agriculture and climate change

2009

This publication explains that organic farming practices can positively contribute to climate change adaption, namely through preserving and restoring organic matter, soil structure and water holding capacity.

Source: ifoam-eu.org

http://www.ifoam-eu.org/sites/default/files/page/files/ifoam_policy_climate_adaptation_africa_dossier_2009.pdf

 

11 Characterization of adaptation strategies to climate change in smallholders’ agriculture

http://www.avsf.org/public/posts/700/caracterisation-des-strategies-d-adaptation-au-changement-climatique-en-agriculture-paysanne.pdf

12 Desertification and farmers’ answers

http://www.iedafrique.org/IMG/pdf/Agridape_No28-3_Decembre-2.pdf

13. Local Resilience and Innovation to Climate Change. Capitalization of the results of the “Support Fund for Local Adaptation Strategies (FSSA)”

http://www.iedafrique.org/IMG/pdf/Doc_capitalisation_FSSA.pdf

14 Pastoralism, sustainable development and climate change in the Ferlo

15. Angelsen, A., Brown S., Loisel C., Peskett L., Streck C., Zarin D. 2009. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD): An Options Assessment Report. Meridian Institute.

16. Antle, J.M., Diagana B. 2003. Creating Incentives for the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Developing Countries: The Role of Soil Carbon Se-questration. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85(5)

17. Antle, J.M., Stoorvogel, J.J. 2008. Agricultural Carbon Sequestration, Poverty and Sustainability. Environment and Development Economics. 13(3)

18. Barrett, C.B., Place F., Aboud A.A. 2002. ed. Natural Resources Management in African Agriculture: Understanding and Improving Current Practices.CAB International.

19. Bockel, L., Smith B. 2009. Climate Change and Agriculture Policies: how to mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation into agriculture policies?, in EASYPOL. FAO.  Rome.

20. FAO. 2009a. The resource outlook to 2050: by how much do land, water use and crop yields need to increase by 2050? Expert Meeting on How to Feed the World in 2050. Rome, FAO and ESDD.

http://www.fao.org/wsfs/forum2050/wsfs-background-documents/wsfs-expert-papers/en/

21. FAO. 2009b. Green jobs. Unasylva No. 233, Vol. 60, 2009/3, Rome.

www.fao.org/forestry/unasylva

22. FAO. 2010. Sources of water for agriculture. SOLAW Background Thematic Report TR03. Rome, FAO

http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i1688e/i1688e.pdf

23. Guha-Sapir. D., D. Hargitt, and P. Hoyois. 2004. Thirty years of natural disasters 1974 2004:thenumbers. Center Res. Epidemiology for Disasters, Univ. Louvain, Louvain-de-Neuve, Belgium.

24. IEA (International Energy Agency). 2011. Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice. IEA, Paris.

http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Renew_Policies.pdf

25. IIASTD ( International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development). 2008. Agriculture at a Crossroads, in International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development. Washington, DC.

26. ILO. 2010. Climate change and labour: The need for a “just transition”, ILO, International Journal of Labour Research Geneva, Vol. 2, Issue 2, ILO, Geneva.

http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—actrav/documents/publication/wcms_153352.pdf

27. ILO. 2011. Promoting Decent Work in a Green Economy. ILO Background Note to Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication, UNEP, 2011.

http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_emp/@emp_ent/documents/publication/wcms_152065.pdf

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29. IPCC. 2001. ed. Climate Change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Report of the working group II.

Cambridge University Press, UK.

30. IPCC. 2003. Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry.

http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/GPG_LULUCF_FULL.pdf

31. IPCC. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, H. Eggleston, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T,

Tanabe K, Editor. 2006, The National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Intergovernmental Panel on

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32. IPCC. 2007. Agriculture, in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Working Group III Contribution to the Fourth

Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

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http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/climate-change-water-en.pdf

34. Kammen, D. M, Kapadia, K. &Fripp, M.2004. Putting Renewables to Work: How Many Jobs Can the Clean Energy Industry Generate? RAEL Report, University of California, Berkeley

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Lal, R. 2004c.Climate Change and Food Security Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts. Science

37. European Commission. 2010. The EU Water Framework Directive.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0060:EN:NOT

38. Sustainable groundwater irrigation: approaches to reconciling demand with resources. GWMATE Strategic Overview Series No. 4. Washington, DC, World Bank.

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http://www.thegef.org/gef/whatisgef

http://www.thegef.org/gef/project_detail

40. Niles, J.O., Brown S., Pretty J.N., Ball A.S., Fay J., Potential carbon mitigation and income in developing countries from changes in use and management of agriculture and forest lands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 2002

41. Nkonya, E., Pender J., Jagger P., Sserunkuuma D., Kaizzi, C., Ssali, H., Strategies for sustainable land management and poverty reduction in Uganda, in Research Report n.133 2004, International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, D.C.

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43. OECD, The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action Beyond 2012. 2009. OECD.

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communities in Asia and Africa 2001, International Food Policy Research Institute: Washington, D.C.

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47. UNFCC, Challenges and opportunities for mitigation in the agricultural sector, in Technical paper:

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48. World Bank 2006. The global water challenge: poverty growth and inter- national relations. Paper presented at Global Issues Seminar Series. Washington, DC, World Bank.

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http://www.unep.org/GreenEconomy/Portals/93/documents/Full_GER_screen.pdf

http://www.avsf.org/public/posts/632/pastoralisme-developpement-durable-et-changement-climatique-dans-le-ferlo-atelier.pdf

50. International Food Policy Research Institute,  2013. West African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC., USA, 2013.